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  Most popular articles (Since February 01, 2018)

 
 
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ARTICLES
Underrepresentation of men in gender based humanitarian and refugee trauma research: a scoping review
William Affleck, Ann Selvadurai, Lindsey Sikora
March 2018, 16(1):22-30
DOI:10.1097/WTF.0000000000000157  
Sex and gender are important considerations within refugee studies. Risks to health and wellbeing may manifest differently for refugee women and men, as may the use of health and social services and responses to interventions. Since the 1980s, increased attention has been paid to the experience of girls and women in refugee and humanitarian research, however, much less attention has been paid to boys and men. The purpose of this systematic scoping review was to investigate whether there is a gender bias in refugee and humanitarian research on refugee trauma. Findings demonstrate that since 1988, fully 95% of gender focused refugee research addressed women’s issues, while only 5% addressed the experience of refugee men. This article offers possible explanations for this gap and discusses its ramifications for both research and clinical practice.
  783 114 -
EDITORIAL
From the editor: welcome to open access!
Marian Tankink
March 2018, 16(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/INTV.INTV_11_18  
  582 133 -
ARTICLES
Marital conflict in the aftermath of genocide in Rwanda: an explorative study within the context of community based sociotherapy
Emmanuel Sarabwe, Annemiek Richters, Marianne Vysma
March 2018, 16(1):14-21
DOI:10.1097/WTF.0000000000000147  
This article explores the ongoing impact of the genocide in Rwanda on marital relationships. Its specific focus are genocide related factors that generate relational trauma and the consequences of this trauma for the everyday lives of spouses affected by it. The qualitative study that informs this article was conducted within the context of a community based sociotherapy programme. The factors found to be contributing to traumatic marital conflict are categorised as those related to genocide perpetration and its consequences, refugeehood, victimisation by genocidal violence and its consequences, intermarriages, and being a descendant of a genocide survivor or a genocide perpetrator. Study participants give a relative high prevalence to factors regarding genocide perpetration, while they assume that the prevalence of traumatic marital conflict among the second generation may continue unless sufficient preventive measures are taken.
  557 132 1
Closing the gap between disaster mental health research and practice: evidence for socio-ecological mental health interventions through multilevel research
Tim R Wind, Ivan H Komproe
March 2018, 16(1):5-13
DOI:10.1097/WTF.0000000000000153  
Socio-ecological interventions assume that there are ‘links’ between the individual process that determines disaster mental health and the social context one lives in. However, there is insufficient empirical basis for this claim. This paper summarises the main findings from a research programme, in which two advanced statistical techniques on data from two floods were applied, respectively Uttar Pradesh, India 2008 and Morpeth, England, 2008. By means of multilevel structural equation modelling it was found that individual psychosocial resources (coping behaviour and social support) are employed more parsimoniously and effectively when disaster affected individuals can rely on a trustworthy and effective social community. Additionally, using multilevel confirmatory factor analyses to address screening outcomes yielded two methodological problems: nested variance due to the disaster context and poor construct validity. These can be illustrated, but not dismissed without applying advanced statistical analyses. The findings strongly suggest that community interventions promoting social context and individual interventions not only share the same objective, but also impact mental health via the same individual mechanisms.
  538 147 1
LETTER TO EDITOR
Psychosocial activities and peace building
Anica Mikuš Kos
March 2018, 16(1):3-4
DOI:10.4103/INTV.INTV_12_18  
  466 153 -
ARTICLES
The role and experience of local faith leaders in promoting child protection: a case study from Malawi
Carola Eyber, Blessings Kachale, Tracy Shields, Alastair Ager
March 2018, 16(1):31-37
DOI:10.1097/WTF.0000000000000156  
Frequently, community based strategies include engagement with local faith leaders. However, there have been few systematic attempts to document how faith leaders themselves define their roles in these initiatives. This study examined local faith leaders and their spouses, in flood affected areas of Malawi, who had been oriented to child protection issues through World Vision workshops aimed explicitly at relating protection concerns to religious teachings. Many participants reported that attending a workshop had been transformational in terms of their perspectives regarding the protection of children. The key child protection issues identified by participants included child marriage, lack of attendance at school, child labour (including forced labour), harsh physical punishment and sexual abuse. Many faith leaders − and their wives − became active in addressing child protection issues as a result of the programme, although the form of this action varied widely and was significantly influenced by their varied status and capacities.
  359 80 -
FIELD REPORTS
Operational and ethical challenges of applied psychosocial research in humanitarian emergency settings: a case study
Elisabetta Dozio, Cécile Bizouerne, Marion Feldman, Marie Rose Moro
March 2018, 16(1):46-53
DOI:10.1097/WTF.0000000000000158  
Interventions on mental health and psychosocial wellbeing have been largely implemented in low and middle income countries. In order to adapt the support offered, an increasing number of applied research projects in mental health and psychosocial support have been conducted. However, while challenges arising can be related to the specificity of the mental health and psychosocial sector, within a broader perspective they are also strongly linked to difficulties of access to beneficiaries, security and protections issues, and competence of staff. Research priorities and guidelines have the objective of providing recommendations to ensure a framework of best practice for research during emergencies. Therefore, this article presents and discusses operational and ethical challenges of research conducted during an emergency, as implemented by the international nongovernmental organisation Action Contre la Faim.
  242 72 -
ARTICLES
Trauma-related mental health problems and effectiveness of a stress management group in national humanitarian workers in the Central African Republic
Capucine de Fouchier, Marianne S Kedia
0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/INTV.INTV_9_18  
The aim of this study is to assess the levels of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in national aid workers in Central African Republic as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of a stress management group in reducing those symptoms. Twenty-seven stress management groups were evaluated in two international non-governmental organisations in which 197 national humanitarian aid workers took part. There was a significant decrease in the intensity of every psychopathological variable tested despite a decrease in the sample between the pre- and post-tests. At post-test, 8.1, 5.1 and 11.1% of the participants had scores indicating anxiety, depression and PTSD compared to 25, 18.9 and 26% at pre-test. The group intervention has demonstrated to be a realistic, effective and cost-effective way to respond to mental health problems in national aid workers living in a context of ongoing violence and where access to specialised services is extremely limited. Key implications for practice
  • Documenting the mental health of national humanitarian staff working in unsecure environment in Central African Republic
  • A one session stress management group protocol can reduce the levels of anxiety, depression and PTSD in this population and hence demonstrating that it is feasible and cost-effective for organizations to honour their duty of care towards national humanitarian workers
  • Further research is needed to confirm these preliminary results, especially in other cultural and humanitarian contexts.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  283 14 -
Our NGO family has suffered a tragedy, and we will survive.’ Evaluating a crisis response intervention with expatriate aid workers in Afghanistan
Sarilee Kahn
March 2018, 16(1):38-45
DOI:10.1097/WTF.0000000000000154  
In 2008, Taliban forces killed four aid workers in Afghanistan. Immediately afterwards, expatriate and national field staff undertook crisis management activities on the ground. While this was a devastating event, field and headquarters staff agreed that the organisational response to the crisis was positive. Nine months later, 19 expatriate staff members involved in the crisis response participated in an evaluation to reflect on personal and organisational factors that contributed to their post crisis resilience. Results suggest that clear security protocols, crisis simulation preparedness training, team cohesiveness, strong leadership, staff mobilisation, well timed psychological support and support from managers may all contribute to staff resilience in high stress environments. Recommendations are offered to the international nongovernmental organisation community seeking to support staff following critical incidents.
  179 50 -
BOOK REVIEW
Psychological Torture. Definition, evaluation and measurement by Pau Pérez-Sales. New York: Routledge: 2017 (414 pages) ISBN 978-1-138-67155-3
Andrew M Jefferson
March 2018, 16(1):61-62
DOI:10.1097/WTF.0000000000000152  
  142 76 -
FIELD REPORTS
The impact of war and economic sanctions on the mental health system in Iraq from 1990 to 2003: a preliminary report
Maha Sulaiman Younis, Azhar Madlom Aswad
March 2018, 16(1):54-58
DOI:10.1097/WTF.0000000000000144  
This paper explores the effects of war in Iraq in the period between 1991 and 2003, with a focus on the effect of economic sanctions on mental health services. The authors, Iraqi psychiatrists with direct contact with patients and events during this period, review literature and reports published contemporaneously. They describe how the mental health system in Iraq was deteriorated, not only by war, but also by United Nations imposed sanctions during the period between the first and second Iraq war.
  174 31 -
BOOK REVIEW
Borderlands of Mental Health: Explorations in medical anthropology, psychiatric epidemiology, and health systems research in Afghanistan and Burundi by Peter Ventevogel, PhD thesis. Geneva: Peter Ventevogel: 2016 (374 pages) ISBN: 978-90-9029910-5
Devon E Hinton
March 2018, 16(1):59-60
DOI:10.1097/WTF.0000000000000159  
  142 49 -
ARTICLES
Integrating psychosocial support at Ebola treatment units in Sierra Leone and Liberia
Inka Weissbecker, Reshma Roshania, Vanessa Cavallera, Michaela Mallow, Ashley Leichner, Jules Antigua, James Gao, Adam Carl Levine
0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/INTV.INTV_8_18  
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic killed almost 12,000 people across Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea, causing significant psychological distress and suffering. This paper describes International Medical Corps’ innovative and comprehensive model for integrating mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) considerations and activities into Ebola treatment units (ETUs) across Sierra Leone and Liberia. This includes staff capacity building as well as psychosocial considerations and activities to address needs and challenges at the ETUs. This model was aimed at reducing patient and family distress and promoting healthy behaviours and recovery. We also include data describing mental health-related symptoms reported by our ETU patients, as well as psychosocial support interventions utilised. We discuss recommendations and lessons learnt and conclude that in line with global guidelines, MHPSS considerations and activities should be integral to all aspects of EVD care. Key implications for practice
  • Patients admitted to ETUs face several stressors and challenges related to the ETU environment and procedures, separation from families and effects of EVD
  • Mental health and psychosocial support considerations should be an integral part of all aspects of care provided at the ETU
  • Paraprofessional psychosocial support workers can play a key role in meeting patient needs at the ETU in line with global mental health and psychosocial support guidelines.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  105 30 -
Developing a culturally sensitive mental health intervention for asylum seekers in the Netherlands: A pilot study
Ortal Slobodin, Samrad Ghane, Joop T. V. M De Jong
0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/INTV.INTV_2_18  
Introduction: This pilot study investigated asylum seekers’ needs and expectations in the mental health field to develop a culturally sensitive psychosocial intervention. Method: Participants were residents of a certain asylum-seekers centre in the Netherlands, with most of them from the Middle East crisis. Needs and expectations were identified using therapy expectations questionnaire (11 participants) and two focus groups (17 participants). Results: Participants associated mental health problems with post-migration stressors more often than with past traumatic experiences. Often, health problems were silenced due to shame, guilt, anxiety and the fear of negative stigma. Individuals and communities were limited in their ability to provide support for those suffering from psychosocial distress due to heavy stigma and the burden of multiple stressors. Conclusion: We underscore the importance of considering the local knowledge of mental health in developing emergency interventions and emphasise the need to reach beyond the trauma-focused approach to strengthen capacities within the community. Key implications for practice
  • Developing a culturally sensitive mental health intervention for asylum seekers requires local knowledge of mental health issues
  • Mental health interventions in emergencies should reach beyond the individualistic trauma-focused approach to address the whole context of forced displacement
  • Because armed conflict often leads to a disruption of the social ecology of a community, mental health interventions should build on existing local support and services and strengthen capacities within the community.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  89 18 -
Resilience building through alternative intervention: ‘STARTTS “Project Bantu Capoeira Angola”’; On the road to recovery
Shakeh Momartin, Edielson da Silva Miranda, Jorge Aroche, Mariano Coello
0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/INTV.INTV_6_18  
As a consequence of prolonged exposure to the high levels of cumulative trauma such as war, gross human rights violations and traumatic loss, refugee adolescents are at significant risk of developing psychological and behavioural complications. During resettlement in Australia, they are often faced with social challenges. It is vital to provide support at this vulnerable stage to reduce future setbacks. In response to the high rates of truancy, challenging behaviour in school and negative relationship with teachers and peers, Capoeira Angola programme was implemented to help them better settle in school life, build resilience, using individual strengths and kinesthetic movement for personal growth and recovery. The main aim of this qualitative evaluation was to establish efficacy and ascertain the impact attributable to the programme on psychological and social issues. Positive changes were observed by participant and teacher’s accounts, demonstrating improvements in resilience, self-esteem, interpersonal relationships and school attendance. The significance and benefits of the programme was established and was endorsed its continuation.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  67 8 -
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